• Ferris State University, B.S., Pharmacy
  • Wayne State University, MD
  • University of Iowa, Anesthesiology Residency
  • Michigan State University, M.A. Philosophy


  • Retail pharmacy:  Before, during medical school, and after retiring from medicine.
  • Clinical medicine: Family practice and primary care, anesthesiology, hospice and nursing home
  • Medical administration: program and personnel management
  • Academic medicine: anesthesiology, medical ethics and professionalism
  • Writer: newspaper column, reviewer and consultant to on-line health encyclopedia, regular contributor to community band association journal.
  • Most unusual job: county coroner, northern Michigan.