- Ferris State University, B.S., Pharmacy
- Wayne State University, MD
- University of Iowa, Anesthesiology Residency
- Michigan State University, M.A. Philosophy
- Retail pharmacy: Before, during medical school, and after retiring from medicine.
- Clinical medicine: Family practice and primary care, anesthesiology, hospice and nursing home
- Medical administration: program and personnel management
- Academic medicine: anesthesiology, medical ethics and professionalism
- Writer: newspaper column, reviewer and consultant to on-line health encyclopedia, regular contributor to community band association journal.
- Most unusual job: county coroner, northern Michigan.